By Norman Biggs

ISBN-10: 052120335X

ISBN-13: 9780521203357

During this sizeable revision of a much-quoted monograph first released in 1974, Dr. Biggs goals to precise homes of graphs in algebraic phrases, then to infer theorems approximately them. within the first part, he tackles the purposes of linear algebra and matrix conception to the research of graphs; algebraic structures equivalent to adjacency matrix and the occurrence matrix and their purposes are mentioned intensive. There follows an in depth account of the idea of chromatic polynomials, an issue that has powerful hyperlinks with the "interaction versions" studied in theoretical physics, and the idea of knots. The final half bargains with symmetry and regularity homes. right here there are vital connections with different branches of algebraic combinatorics and team thought. The constitution of the amount is unchanged, however the textual content has been clarified and the notation introduced into line with present perform. a good number of "Additional effects" are integrated on the finish of every bankruptcy, thereby protecting lots of the significant advances long ago 20 years. This new and enlarged variation should be crucial interpreting for a variety of mathematicians, computing device scientists and theoretical physicists.

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**Example text**

3 expresses the characteristic polynomial of a graph T in terms of the sesquivalent subgraphs of T. If T is bipartite, then the remarks in the previous paragraph imply that F has no sesquivalent subgraphs with an odd number of vertices. Consequently, the characteristic polynomial of T has the form X ( r ; z) = zn + c2zn~2 + c±zn~* + . . = z8p(z2), where S = 0 or 1, and p is a polynomial function. I t follows that the eigenvalues, which are the zeros of #, have the required property. 2 can also be proved by more direct means.

Thus KT = ( D ^ D ^ ) ' . Our equations for C T and K T show how the basic circuits and cutsets associated with T can be deduced from the incidence matrix. We also have an algebraic proof of the following proposition. 5 Let T be a spanning tree ofF and let a and b be edges of F such that aeT,b<£T. Then b e c u t (T,a)oaecir (T, b). Proof This result follows immediately from the definitions of CT and K T , and the fact that C T + K^ = 0. • We end this chapter with a brief exposition of the solution of network equations; this application provided the stimulus for the development of the foregoing theory.

But, if r has at least one edge, then A min (A) = A m i n (r) < 0. The result now follows. 8 can be very useful. For example (as every geometer knows) there are 27 lines on a general cubic surface, and each line meets 10 other lines (Henderson 1912); if we represent this configuration by means of a graph in which vertices represent lines, and adjacent vertices represent skew lines, then we have a regular graph 2 with 27 vertices and valency 16. This is the graph mentioned in §3E, and we shall compute the spectrum of 2 fully in Chapter 21.