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By Colin Brown

ISBN-10: 1865088382

ISBN-13: 9781865088389

This succinct paintings of heritage charts the expansion of Indonesia, a striking country of greater than 6,000 inhabited islands. With lucid originality, the textual content accommodates greater than 2 million years of historical past with intensity and brevity-particularly concentrating on Indonesia's improvement right into a microcosm of a multi-ethnic glossy international. Many present matters are perceptively addressed, akin to the legacy of European-Asian alternate, Dutch colonialism, and the emergence of what has develop into the most important Muslim inhabitants on the earth.

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In some respects it was similar to other trading companies being established at the same time, such as the English East India Company, but in other respects it was innovative. Most importantly, shareholders invested their money in the Company, not in individual voyages. This gave the Company’s directors the opportunity to pursue long-term rather than short-term objectives, to take strategic decisions rather than having to return a profit on each and every voyage. The first major VOC base in the archipelago was at Ambon, which it seized from the Portuguese in 1605.

By about 1019 he was back in control of the region around Pasuruan on the north coast, east of Surabaya. Bali was brought under control by 1025, and by about 1035 most of Mataram had been restored to Airlangga’s control. Around the middle of the century, Airlangga apparently decided that after his death the state should be divided between his two sons. Quite what he intended to achieve by this is not clear, but the division seems to have taken place, the western portion of Mataram becoming Kadiri, the eastern part Janggala.

It was also through the taxation system that those local officials earned their incomes. Officials were not paid a salary; rather, they had the right to keep the difference between the taxes they could extract from their regions, and the net tax they paid to the ruler. This would clearly have put the bupati in a very powerful position to squeeze the local population in some cases, but not always. Until two or three centuries ago, Java as a whole was underpopulated: people who felt they were being treated too harshly by their local bupati were usually able to retaliate simply by moving on to an uninhabited, and thus untaxed, region.

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