By Michelson A.A.
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Extra info for A Modification of the Revolving Mirror Method for Measuring the Velocity of Light (1920)(en)(2s)
Integrating Spheres An integrating sphere is a hollow sphere coated inside with Barium Sulfate, a diffuse white reflectance coating that offers greater than 97% reflectance between 450 and 900 nm. The sphere is baffled internally to block direct and first-bounce light. Integrating spheres are used as sources of uniform radiance and as input optics for measuring total power. Often, a lamp is place inside the sphere to capture light that is emitted in any direction. High Gain Lenses In situations with low irradiance from a point source, high gain input optics can be used to amplify the light by as much as 50 times while ignoring off angle ambient light.
Fused silica or optical quartz with a ground (rough) internal hemisphere makes an excellent diffuser with adequate transmission in the ultraviolet. Teflon is an excellent alternative for UV and visible applications, but is not an effective diffuser for infrared light. Lastly, an integrating sphere coated with BaSO4 or PTFE powder is the ideal cosine receiver, since the planar sphere aperture defines the cosine relationship. 56 Radiance Lens Barrels Radiance and luminance optics frequently employ a dual lens system that provides an effective viewing angle of less than 4°.
For applications with relatively constant irradiance, this is not a concern. In flash integration, however, the change in irradiance is dramatic and requires specialized amplification circuitry for an accurate reading. Flash integration is preferable to measuring the peak irradiance, because the duration of a flash is as important as its peak. In addition, since the total power from a flash is low, an integration of 10 flashes or more will significantly improve the signal to noise ratio and give an accurate average flash.